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Our team that provides admissions essays editing for college wants to share with you an essay about the scientific heritage of Emile Durkheim.
As far as you might have understood having seen the title of this essay, it will be dedicated to the biography and the work of Emile Durkheim. He is the founder of sociology and the founder of French sociological school and the publisher of the journal “Sociological Yearbook” which was issued from 1886 to 1913. Emile Durkheim was a professor at the universities of Paris and Bordeaux, and his activity contributed to the institutionalization of sociology in France. If you already have an essay on Emile Durkheim but you are not sure whether it is written well, order cheap online paper editor services and the problem will be solved.
Durkheim was the follower of the French philosopher Auguste Comte. He shared his point of view about the place occupied by sociology in the hierarchy of sciences, and also that it could appear in the XIX century when humanity realized that it needs self-contained management of social life. Durkheim considered social reality to be the object of sociological study, and social facts that can exist separately from the individual and influence him/her to be a subject of sociological study. Being the main theoretician in the field of positively centered sociology, he elaborated theories of sociological religion, allocation of labor, functional analysis, social cohesion, social cognition, social fact, and even suicide.
All the Durkheim's works contain the implicit and explicit reflection on the topic of sociological fact. This is the basis of all his ideas and researches. According to Durkheim, social facts are the basis of social life and they can't be regarded as physical, psychological, or economic factors of reality since they have their own features. The main characteristics are the following: their existence is independent, however, they can influence an individual. You can’t even imagine how strong social influence can be. This essay on the astonishing power of social pressure will explain to you why it is so dangerous for vulnerable minds.
Durkheim subdivided all social facts into:
- Morphological ones; these are the material basis of society, the intensity of interaction between people, the frequency of contacts, the characteristics of settlements, etc.
- Spiritual ones; which are the part of collective consciousness.
Durkheim studied society using spiritual sociological facts as the major ones regarding them as a key factor for social development. If you wonder: “can you write an essay in a day” the answer is definitely yes and, moreover, this essay will be completed regardless of its topic and difficulty.
The theoretical and methodological basis of Durkheim's concept is represented by sociologism; this is one of the kinds of social realism. Therefore, the scientist was convinced that an individual is controlled by society both mentally and physically. A human being is a dual creature with an individual part that serves as a sort of boundary, and a social part that represents the reality of the highest moral and intellectual order, i.e. society. Durkheim believed, there can be no politics, no morals, no religion, and no economic institutions without society. According to his theory, he paid too much attention to the social features of an individual disregarding all others.
Social cohesion is another theoretical and methodological principle of the concept of Emile Durkheim. Social cohesion plays the main role in his theories concerning the economic and political power of the society, the formation of religion, allocation of labor etc. The higher the degree of social cohesion is, the more effectively the society develops. Allocation of labor is a natural process, which is preceded by the consent of all the members of the society. The consent can be divided into a mechanical and organic one. Emile Durkheim also studied the question of the citizenship since it represents social and political views supported by an individual. Read more at https://findwritingservice.com/blog/good-citizenship-essay-how-to-be-a-good-citizen.
The mechanical consent prevailed in an ancient society where people were socially equal, and any improper behavior was severely punished, which appeared to be a serious obstacle for the development of an individual outside the society. The organic consent is particular to the modern society. In this case, social exchange and its results are conditioned by the interdependence of each individual within the society. Considering the fact that each type of consent is far from being perfect as it is, the major functions of labor allocation are the incorporation of people and provision of a single social system and propagation of solidarity principles, which are the highest moral principles and a universal value for each individual.
In the context of the modern society, in order to make sure that solidarity will exist and develop, it is necessary to create professional corporations that must perform many social functions, from manufacturing to moral and cultural ones; to develop and implement new standards of relations between capital and labor, capable of developing the personality and overcoming social crisis.
Durkheim also paid special attention to the religion as a key factor promoting the development of the society. However, you should not misuse the words religion and faith since they are completely opposite. Read our essay on the essence of faith to understand our point of view https://findwritingservice.com/blog/essay-on-faith-the-bible-and-words-of-faith. Most of his works contain the theory that religion is the only product of social development. Studying the origins of the religion from the primitive to the bourgeois one, he proved that the object of any religious institution is the society and their major functions are the promotion of the unity within the society and represent the ideas that predispose stimulation of social development. Durkheim was positive that the religion promotes moral values, development of personal features, and the establishment of positive solidarity. In support of his theory, he proved that any society is in need of religion but a social one rather than a divine one. At findwritingservice.com you can get term paper help you truly deserve since the quality of the services provided will be just perfect.
However, Durkheim became famous worldwide only after the publishing of his book “Suicide” in which he rejected the propagated theory that only psychological factors might lead to suicide and proved that a true reason for committing a suicide is a social life with its values and rules and peculiarities of social connections. The suicide itself Durkheim divided into three types:
- Egoistic is a form of protest of an individual against the rules set by a certain social group (family, for example);
- Altruistic is a form of a sacrifice and an individual is convinced that this one is necessary or inevitable;
- Anomic is also a protest of an individual against the current social order (fascism, socialism, totalitarianism etc.)
Having studied an incredible number of facts, Durkheim managed to prove, for example, that suicides occur more frequently in the summer than in the winter; in cities more frequently than in villages; among lonely people more frequently than among those who have families, etc. Today, sociologists widely use the scientific heritage of Durkheim as a basis for their own researches.
Sociological Theory and Social Philosophy
Sociological theory and social philosophy, created by Durkheim, are based on a categorical apparatus. Thanks to his study, such categories as "collective perception", "social contradictions", "function", "structure", "historical thought", "time", "social classes", "space", etc. were elaborated. Due to the fact that categories are represented by concepts, they are the result of the collective functioning of the society. However, focusing on the subjective aspect of categories, the scientist did not deny their objective nature.
By means of hard work and multiple scientific studies, Emile Durkheim contributed to the development of the unique sociological theories and this heritage is used by the sociologists all over the world even today. The sociological school created by Durkheim that also took a part in the publishing of “Sociological Yearbook” journal successfully propagated and developed the study of Durkheim even during the First and the Second World War period. In the course of the Second World War, it was a harsh time for the science in general, and this essay on the secret life of science during the WWII should reveal a couple of secrets you didn’t know of.
All disciples of Durkheim (Marcel Moss, Maurice Halbwachs, Celestin Bugle and others) created their own direction of sociological science, based on the theories of their teacher. These scientists, as well as their followers, have successfully defended and continue defending sociological theories of Emile Durkheim from the criticism of existentialists, Marxists, and phenomenologists.
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