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Ph.D. dissertation writing service team is about to change your understanding of empathy by means of this very essay.
Even 5-7 years ago the word "empathy" had only scientific meaning in English and it wasn’t used in the written texts or during the conversation. However, today, everything has changed for this word and it is commonly used almost everywhere. The number of scientific studies dedicated to the empathy also significantly increased and in 1990 according to the American Psychological Association, there were at least ten studies related to empathy this way or another. While, in 2013, this number increased up to a thousand works yearly.
What is the reason for such an interest? First of all, the scientists paid attention to our understanding of the empathy, its role in the communication of the individuals and his or her development, how lack of cruelty affects an individual, whether it causes aggressiveness or contributes to the development of narcissism.
On the other hand, the greatest contribution to the increase of the studies dedicated to the empathy was made by neuroscientists. Such an interest in neuroscience is connected with the discovery of mirror neurons, which happened in the 90s of the previous century. The mirror neuron networks, the mirror principle of the brain, the hypothesis of perception and action are the issues that were really discussed. According to this hypothesis, if we see some action or behavior of another person, the same parts of our brain are excited, as if we are doing the same action or being at the same conditions.
In other words, we have a model of the action or behavior of another person in our brain. Such a mechanism is believed to appear in the course of the evolution in order to understand other individuals faster. We actually understand other people (sometimes it is called imitation or simulation but it is better to call it empathy) feeling the same emotions inside on a certain level, which almost equals the feelings of another person. Actually, it significantly differs from various tests and experiments to determine what another person feels. What is the greatest example of empathy? Obviously, this is the mother that feels whatever her child feels using this connection called empathy. Read our essay on the love of the mother http://findwritingservice.com/blog/essay-about-mother-the-closest-person.
The empathy itself is considered to be the key concept in the understanding of such a phenomenon as a compassion. The empathy, in general, is our understanding of other people feelings and experiences based on compassion and oriented on the evaluation of his/her feelings of an individual him/herself. We never use some external sources of information, we never elaborate some theories in order to understand what other people feel. We try to consider the same situation from our point of view and the one of another person. Moreover, such a principle of understanding was historically the first step to define the empathy.
At this point, we would like to add some historical facts concerning the emergence of this notion since usually when people discuss it, they consider it to be the word appeared from nowhere or they consider Carl Rogers to be the first scientist who introduced this notion. Indeed, this brilliant psychologists and psychotherapist did a huge contribution to the development of this concept, but he was far from being the first who discovered it. In the history of empathy studying, the following names are also involved: Edmund Husserl, Max Scheler, Karl Jaspers, and Wilhelm Dilthey. This is the biography of Wilhelm Dilthey, one of the most prominent personality in the history of empathy studying. His contribution is obviously huge to both the definition of empathy and the development of the philosophy in general.
It happened at the turn of XIX and XX centuries. The situation was completely different. The philosophers were interested in this phenomenon but they actually used another word. The word they used was actually translated as “feeling”. It was this word that in 1909 was translated as empathy by Edward Titchener, and it has completely different meaning in the field of psychology. Moreover, the scientists added that he designed this word in such a way deliberately so that it could be similar to the word “sympathy”. He made such a translation in order to preserve the original meaning of emotions defined by German philosopher and psychologist Theodore Lipps.
Theodore Lipps was one of the favorite philosophers of Sigmund Freud and a very interesting person as well. Lipps answered the question, which was one of the most important for philosophers of the previous century: how the cognition of another person is actually possible. If we have only our own consciousness available, how can we understand other ones? How do we understand someone else's consciousness? One of the most powerful weapons of empathy is words and you should know how to use them to understand how empathy actually works http://findwritingservice.com/blog/power-of-words-essay-does-it-make-any-sense.
Lipps replied that when he sees behavior or action of another person, as well as another image or some natural phenomenon, an unconscious imitation of displayed externally, certain kinesthetic feeling appears, which, according to the association law, helps us to feel something another person feels and experience the same things as he or she does.
It sounds very familiar and even similar to modern neuroscientists, but the scientist was much criticized for these words. Phenomenologists Husserl, Max Scheler, and others believed that this is completely unnecessary since all these kinesthetic impulses and other physiological reactions are not needed. Thus, Theodore Lipps was avenged. Of course, Phenomenologists criticized him, but this concept was widely used. For example, Edmund Husserl in the latest work of his wrote that people are monads, but monads have gaps and these gaps of empathy. His student Edith Stein in 1913 wrote the first thesis on empathy and one of the best definitions of this phenomenon: empathy is an experiencing of someone else's consciousness. Why our assignment writing help in the UK is the best one? We focus on the quality of the product we offer and our quality is impeccable.
The discussion about the possibility of such experience also had another direction, a methodological one. How psychology can possibly exist? It means, psychology as a science about other people's consciousness. Wilhelm Dilthey, who presented his project of a new psychology, which is not a natural scientist and the subject of such a psychology was considered the sympathy not in the meaning we got used to but in a much broader one. He spoke of sympathy and the attempts to consider another point of view. However, the general meaning of the word "empathy" belongs to Dilthey.
This idea of empathy as a method was followed by Karl Jaspers, but at that time he was still a psychiatrist, yet not an existential philosopher. In his book, he added empathy to the system of methods of phenomenological psychiatry. Later, these ideas will be used by Heinz Kohut to develop his methodological questions: sympathy as an object and empathy as a method. Want to get cheap rewriting service with around-the-clock writers at a low cost? You have already found the website you need. Order now to get 23% discount on your next order.
In the 1920-1930 the interest towards this phenomenon that grew during all these years dropped sharply. The word "empathy" was almost not used, and previous concepts and theories almost disappeared. However, at the same time, the scientists are busy developing new ideas that will soon be a perfect addition to the studying of empathy.
First of all, it is Piaget's theory of decentering, how a child overcomes his egocentrism to see things from another point of view (of another person to be specific) and see the world as if he or she is another person. Secondly, the theory of sympathy is very popular during this period: sympathy as a social glue that connects people. These are feelings of pity, friendliness, sympathy, compassion, actually empathy. These on-going researches will become one of the biggest issues called empathy in the second half of the twentieth century.
Although there have been serious disputes about whether it is worth combining empathy as understanding and empathy as an attitude. At the present moment, the definition of empathy has two different directions. Empathy is both cognition and attitude. Empathic understanding, based on sympathy, and our response to the experiences of another people, our feelings in response to the experiences of others. It was possible to preserve such a meaning of empathy thanks to the social context, commitment to another person and his or her wellbeing. Our custom research papers services are at your service. Our team is waiting for you to place an order to deal with your paper or assignment as soon as possible.
This ideas and concepts were used in the theories of Carl Rogers, that’s why his contribution to the studying of empathy is so huge. If the therapist, according to Rogers, displays empathy, positive personal changes of the object are almost inevitable. Empathy is one of three necessary and sufficient conditions for therapeutic changes. However, further Rogers expanded his theories and said that empathy is generally a necessary and sufficient condition for personal development and growth in general. In addition, we offer you to read these tips on being more sympathetic to be able to help people you care about if they have some personal problems.
Almost at the same time, Heinz Kohut said that empathy is a universal requirement for the development. He does not agree with Freudian ideas concerning our needs stating that even if a child wants to eat, he or she requires empathic motivation. Thus, empathy is a display of our humanity. He was positive that empathy can turn a scared and puzzled person into a personality.
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